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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
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<country cid="c3">
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	<name>Italy</name>
	<background>
		<par>Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy is a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC) and its subsequent successors the EC and the EU. It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include sluggish economic growth, high youth and female unemployment, organized crime, corruption, and economic disparities between southern Italy and the more prosperous north.</par>
	</background>
	<geography>
		<location>Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia</location>
		<coordinates>
			<latitude>42 50 N</latitude>
			<longitude>12 50 E</longitude>
		</coordinates>
		<area>
			<a_total>301,340 sq km</a_total>
			<a_land>294,140 sq km</a_land>
			<a_water>7,200 sq km</a_water>
		</area>
		<climate>predominantly Mediterranean; alpine in far north; hot, dry in south</climate>
		<terrain>mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands</terrain>
		<elevation>
			<e_mean>538 m</e_mean>
			<e_lowest>Mediterranean Sea 0 m</e_lowest>
			<e_highest>Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) de Courmayeur (a secondary peak of Mont Blanc) 4,748 m</e_highest>
		</elevation>
		<resources>
			<resource>coal</resource>
			<resource>antimony</resource>
			<resource>mercury</resource>
			<resource>zinc</resource>
			<resource>potash</resource>
			<resource>marble</resource>
			<resource>barite</resource>
			<resource>asbestos</resource>
			<resource>pumice</resource>
			<resource>fluorspar</resource>
			<resource>feldspar</resource>
			<resource>pyrite (sulfur)</resource>
			<resource>natural gas and crude oil reserves</resource>
			<resource>fish</resource>
			<resource>arable land</resource>
		</resources>
		<land>
			<l_agricultural>47.1%</l_agricultural>
			<l_forest>31.4%</l_forest>
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			<l_other>21.5%</l_other>
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		</land>
	</geography>
	<society>
		<population>62,402,659</population>
		<nationality>
			<n_noun>Italian(s)</n_noun>
			<n_adjective>Italian</n_adjective>
		</nationality>
	<etnicity>
		<etnic_group>
			<eg_name>Italian</eg_name>
			<eg_percentage>100%</eg_percentage>
		</etnic_group>
		<e_note>Includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south</e_note>
	</etnicity>
	<languages>
		<official>Italian</official>
		<language>German</language>
		<language>French</language>
		<language>Slovene</language>
	</languages>
	<religions>
		<religion>
			<r_name>Christian</r_name>
			<r_percentage>83.3%</r_percentage>
		</religion>
		<religion>
			<r_name>Muslim</r_name>
			<r_percentage>3.7%</r_percentage>
		</religion>
		<religion>
			<r_name>unaffiliated</r_name>
			<r_percentage>12.4%</r_percentage>
		</religion>
		<religion>
			<r_name>other</r_name>
			<r_percentage>0.6%</r_percentage>
		</religion>
	</religions>
	<age>
		<a_group>
			<ag_range>0-14</ag_range>
			<ag_percentage>13.45%</ag_percentage>
			<ag_male>4,292,431</ag_male>
			<ag_female>4,097,732</ag_female>
		</a_group>
		<a_group>
			<ag_range>15-24</ag_range>
			<ag_percentage>9.61%</ag_percentage>
			<ag_male>3,005,402</ag_male>
			<ag_female>2,989,764</ag_female>
		</a_group>
		<a_group>
			<ag_range>25-54</ag_range>
			<ag_percentage>40.86%</ag_percentage>
			<ag_male>12,577,764</ag_male>
			<ag_female>12,921,614</ag_female>
		</a_group>
		<a_group>
			<ag_range>55-64</ag_range>
			<ag_percentage>14%</ag_percentage>
			<ag_male>4,243,735</ag_male>
			<ag_female>4,493,581</ag_female>
		</a_group>
		<a_group>
			<ag_range>65+</ag_range>
			<ag_percentage>22.08%</ag_percentage>
			<ag_male>5,949,560</ag_male>
			<ag_female>7,831,076</ag_female>
		</a_group>
		<a_median>
			<am_total>46.5</am_total>
			<am_male>45.4</am_male>
			<am_female>47.5</am_female>
		</a_median>
		<a_life_expectency>
			<al_total>82.5</al_total>
			<al_male>79.8</al_male>
			<al_female>85.3</al_female>
		</a_life_expectency>
	</age>
	<urbanization>
		<u_population>71%</u_population>
		<u_rate>0.29%</u_rate>
		<u_major_areas>
			<u_major_area>
				<uma_name>ROME</uma_name>
				<uma_population>4.257 million</uma_population>
			</u_major_area>
			<u_major_area>
				<uma_name>Milan</uma_name>
				<uma_population>3.140 million</uma_population>
			</u_major_area>
			<u_major_area>
				<uma_name>Naples</uma_name>
				<uma_population>2.187 million</uma_population>
			</u_major_area>
			<u_major_area>
				<uma_name>Turin</uma_name>
				<uma_population>1.792 million</uma_population>
			</u_major_area>
			<u_major_area>
				<uma_name>Bergamo</uma_name>
				<uma_population>892,000</uma_population>
			</u_major_area>
			<u_major_area>
				<uma_name>Palermo</uma_name>
				<uma_population>851,000</uma_population>
			</u_major_area>
		</u_major_areas>
	</urbanization>
	<literacy>
		<l_total>99.2%</l_total>
		<l_male>99.4%</l_male>
		<l_female>99%</l_female>
	</literacy>
	</society>
	<government>
		<government_type>parliamentary republic</government_type>
		<capital>Rome</capital>
		<chief_of_state>
			<c_name>President Sergio MATTARELLA</c_name>
			<c_elected>3 February 2015</c_elected>
		</chief_of_state>
		<head_of_goverment>
			<h_name>Prime Minister Giuseppe CONTE</h_name>
			<h_elected>1 June 2018</h_elected>
		</head_of_goverment>
		<legal_system>civil law system; judicial review of legislation under certain conditions in Constitutional Court</legal_system>
		<symbols>
			<symbol>white, five-pointed star</symbol>
			<s_color>red</s_color>
			<s_color>white</s_color>
			<s_color>green</s_color>
			<anthem>"Il Canto degli Italiani" (The Song of the Italians)</anthem>
		</symbols>
	</government>
	<economy>
		<e_overview>
			<par>Italy’s economy comprises a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less-developed, highly subsidized, agricultural south, with a legacy of unemployment and underdevelopment. The Italian economy is driven in large part by the manufacture of high-quality consumer goods produced by small and medium-sized enterprises, many of them family-owned. Italy also has a sizable underground economy, which by some estimates accounts for as much as 17% of GDP. These activities are most common within the agriculture, construction, and service sectors.</par>
			<par>Italy is the third-largest economy in the euro zone, but its exceptionally high public debt and structural impediments to growth have rendered it vulnerable to scrutiny by financial markets. Public debt has increased steadily since 2007, reaching 131% of GDP in 2017. Investor concerns about Italy and the broader euro-zone crisis eased in 2013, bringing down Italy's borrowing costs on sovereign government debt from euro-era records. The government still faces pressure from investors and European partners to sustain its efforts to address Italy's longstanding structural economic problems, including labor market inefficiencies, a sluggish judicial system, and a weak banking sector. Italy’s economy returned to modest growth in late 2014 for the first time since 2011. In 2015-16, Italy’s economy grew at about 1% each year, and in 2017 growth accelerated to 1.5% of GDP. In 2017, overall unemployment was 11.4%, but youth unemployment remained high at 37.1%. GDP growth is projected to slow slightly in 2018.</par>
		</e_overview>
		<GDP>
			<GDP_amount>$2.317 trillion</GDP_amount>
			<GDP_growth>1.5%</GDP_growth>
			<GDP_per_capita>$38,200</GDP_per_capita>
			<GDP_savings>20.3% of GDP</GDP_savings>
			<GDP_sectors>
				<GDPs_agriculture>2.1%</GDPs_agriculture>
				<GDPs_industry>23.9%</GDPs_industry>
				<GDPs_services>73.9%</GDPs_services>
			</GDP_sectors>
		</GDP>
		<agricultural_products>
			<agricultural_product>fruits</agricultural_product>
			<agricultural_product>vegetables</agricultural_product>
			<agricultural_product>grapes</agricultural_product>
			<agricultural_product>potatoes</agricultural_product>
			<agricultural_product>sugar beets</agricultural_product>
			<agricultural_product>soybeans</agricultural_product>
			<agricultural_product>grain</agricultural_product>
			<agricultural_product>olives</agricultural_product>
			<agricultural_product>beef</agricultural_product>
			<agricultural_product>dairy products</agricultural_product>
			<agricultural_product>fish</agricultural_product>
		</agricultural_products>
		<industries>
			<industry>tourism</industry>
			<industry>machinery</industry>
			<industry>iron and steel</industry>
			<industry>chemicals</industry>
			<industry>food processing</industry>
			<industry>textiles</industry>
			<industry>motor vehicles</industry>
			<industry>clothing</industry>
			<industry>footwear</industry>
			<industry>ceramics</industry>
		</industries>
		<labor_force>
			<lf_amount>25.94 million</lf_amount>
			<lf_sectors>
				<lfs_agriculture>3.9%</lfs_agriculture>
				<lfs_industry>28.3%</lfs_industry>
				<lfs_services>67.8%</lfs_services>
			</lf_sectors>
		</labor_force>
		<unemployment>11.3%</unemployment>
		<inflation>1.3%</inflation>
		<exports_and_imports>
			<exports>
				<e_amount>$496.3 billion</e_amount>
				<e_partners>
					<e_partner>
						<ep_name>Germany</ep_name>
						<ep_percentage>12.5%</ep_percentage>
					</e_partner>
					<e_partner>
						<ep_name>France</ep_name>
						<ep_percentage>10.3%</ep_percentage>
					</e_partner>
					<e_partner>
						<ep_name>US</ep_name>
						<ep_percentage>9%</ep_percentage>
					</e_partner>
					<e_partner>
						<ep_name>Spain</ep_name>
						<ep_percentage>5.2%</ep_percentage>
					</e_partner>
					<e_partner>
						<ep_name>UK</ep_name>
						<ep_percentage>5.2%</ep_percentage>
					</e_partner>
					<e_partner>
						<ep_name>Switzerland</ep_name>
						<ep_percentage>4.6%</ep_percentage>
					</e_partner>
				</e_partners>
				<e_commodities>
					<e_commodity>engineering products</e_commodity>
					<e_commodity>textiles and clothing</e_commodity>
					<e_commodity>production machinery</e_commodity>
					<e_commodity>motor vehicles</e_commodity>
					<e_commodity>transport equipment</e_commodity>
					<e_commodity>chemicals</e_commodity>
					<e_commodity>foodstuffs</e_commodity>
					<e_commodity>beverages</e_commodity>
					<e_commodity>tobacco</e_commodity>
					<e_commodity>minerals</e_commodity>
					<e_commodity>nonferrous metals</e_commodity>
				</e_commodities>
			</exports>
			<imports>
				<i_amount>$432.9 billion</i_amount>
				<i_partners>
					<i_partner>
						<ip_name>Germany</ip_name>
						<ip_percentage>16.3%</ip_percentage>
					</i_partner>
					<i_partner>
						<ip_name>France</ip_name>
						<ip_percentage>8.8%</ip_percentage>
					</i_partner>
					<i_partner>
						<ip_name>China</ip_name>
						<ip_percentage>7.1%</ip_percentage>
					</i_partner>
					<i_partner>
						<ip_name>Netherlands</ip_name>
						<ip_percentage>5.6%</ip_percentage>
					</i_partner>
					<i_partner>
						<ip_name>Spain</ip_name>
						<ip_percentage>5.3%</ip_percentage>
					</i_partner>
					<i_partner>
						<ip_name>Belgium</ip_name>
						<ip_percentage>4.5%</ip_percentage>
					</i_partner>
				</i_partners>
				<i_commodities>
					<i_commodity>engineering products</i_commodity>
					<i_commodity>chemicals</i_commodity>
					<i_commodity>transport equipment</i_commodity>
					<i_commodity>energy products</i_commodity>
					<i_commodity>minerals and nonferrous metals</i_commodity>
					<i_commodity>textiles and clothing</i_commodity>
					<i_commodity>food</i_commodity>
					<i_commodity>beverages</i_commodity>
					<i_commodity>tobacco</i_commodity>
				</i_commodities>
			</imports>
		</exports_and_imports>
	</economy>
	<energy>
		<electricity>
			<e_access>100%</e_access>
			<e_production>275.3 billion kWh</e_production>
			<e_consumption>293.5 billion kWh</e_consumption>
			<e_exports>6.155 billion kWh</e_exports>
			<e_imports>43.18 billion kWh</e_imports>
			<e_sources>
				<e_source>
					<es_type>fossil fuel</es_type>
					<es_percentage>54%</es_percentage>
				</e_source>
				<e_source>
					<es_type>nuclear</es_type>
					<es_percentage>0%</es_percentage>
				</e_source>
				<e_source>
					<es_type>hydroelectric</es_type>
					<es_percentage>14%</es_percentage>
				</e_source>
				<e_source>
					<es_type>other renewable sources</es_type>
					<es_percentage>32%</es_percentage>
				</e_source>
			</e_sources>
		</electricity>
		<crude_oil>
			<co_production>90,000 bbl/day</co_production>
			<co_exports>13,790 bbl/day</co_exports>
			<co_imports>1.341 million bbl/day</co_imports>
		</crude_oil>
		<refined_petroleum_products>
			<rpp_production>1.607 million bbl/day</rpp_production>
			<rpp_consumption>1.236 million bbl/day</rpp_consumption>
			<rpp_exports>615,900 bbl/day</rpp_exports>
			<rpp_imports>422,500 bbl/day</rpp_imports>
		</refined_petroleum_products>
		<natural_gas>
			<ng_production>5.55 billion cu m</ng_production>
			<ng_consumption>75.15 billion cu m</ng_consumption>
			<ng_exports>271.8 million cu m</ng_exports>
			<ng_imports>69.66 billion cu m</ng_imports>
		</natural_gas>
	</energy>
	<communication>
		<telephones>
			<t_fixed_lines_subscribtions>20,396,603</t_fixed_lines_subscribtions>
			<t_mobile_cellular_subscribtions>83,342,486</t_mobile_cellular_subscribtions>
		</telephones>
		<broadcast_media>two Italian media giants dominate - the publicly owned Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI) with 3 national terrestrial stations and privately owned Mediaset with 3 national terrestrial stations; a large number of private stations and Sky Italia - a satellite TV network; RAI operates 3 AM/FM nationwide radio stations; about 1,300 commercial radio stations</broadcast_media>
		<internet>
			<i_code>.it</i_code>
			<i_total_users>38,025,661</i_total_users>
		</internet>
	</communication>
	<military_and_security>
		<expenditure>1.22% of GDP</expenditure>
		<military_forces>
			<military_force>
				<mf_name_EN>Army</mf_name_EN>
				<mf_abbreviation>EI</mf_abbreviation>
			</military_force>
			<military_force>
				<mf_name_EN>Navy</mf_name_EN>
				<mf_abbreviation>MMI</mf_abbreviation>
			</military_force>
			<military_force>
				<mf_name_EN>Italian Air Force</mf_name_EN>
				<mf_abbreviation>AMI</mf_abbreviation>
			</military_force>
			<military_force>
				<mf_name_EN>Carabinieri Corps</mf_name_EN>
				<mf_abbreviation>CC</mf_abbreviation>
			</military_force>
		</military_forces>
		<obligation>Italian citizenship required; 1-year service obligation</obligation>
	</military_and_security>
	<transportation>
		<airports>
			<ap_total>129</ap_total>
			<ap_paved>98</ap_paved>
			<ap_unpaved>31</ap_unpaved>
		</airports>
		<pipelines>
			<p_gas>20223 km</p_gas>
			<p_oil>1393 km</p_oil>
		</pipelines>
		<railways>20,182 km</railways>
		<roadways>
			<r_total>487,700 km</r_total>
			<r_paved>487,700 km</r_paved>
			<r_unpaved>0 km</r_unpaved>
		</roadways>
		<waterways>2,400 km</waterways>
	</transportation>
	<transnational_issues>
		<disputes>taly's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa</disputes>
		<drugs>important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; money laundering by organized crime and from smuggling</drugs>
	</transnational_issues>
</country>