diff --git a/xhtml/CUBA.html b/xhtml/CUBA.html new file mode 100644 index 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000..54810220ac7bd1bed72b8622f7278131a965e7cc --- /dev/null +++ b/xhtml/CUBA.html @@ -0,0 +1,466 @@ + + + + Cuba + + +
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Cuba

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Background

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The native Amerindian population of Cuba began to decline after the European discovery of the island by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 and following its development as a Spanish colony during the next several centuries. Large numbers of African slaves were imported to work the coffee and sugar plantations, and Havana became the launching point for the annual treasure fleets bound for Spain from Mexico and Peru. Spanish rule eventually provoked an independence movement and occasional rebellions were harshly suppressed. US intervention during the Spanish-American War in 1898 assisted the Cubans in overthrowing Spanish rule. The Treaty of Paris established Cuban independence from Spain in 1898 and, following three-and-a-half years of subsequent US military rule, Cuba became an independent republic in 1902 after which the island experienced a string of governments mostly dominated by the military and corrupt politicians. Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his authoritarian rule held the subsequent regime together for nearly five decades. He stepped down as president in February 2008 in favor of his younger brother Raul CASTRO. Cuba's communist revolution, with Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin America and Africa during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez, hand-picked by Raul CASTRO to succeed him, was approved as president by the National Assembly and took office on 19 April 2018.

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The country faced a severe economic downturn in 1990 following the withdrawal of former Soviet subsidies worth $4-6 billion annually. Cuba traditionally and consistently portrays the US embargo, in place since 1961, as the source of its difficulties. As a result of efforts begun in December 2014 to re-establish diplomatic relations with the Cuban Government, which were severed in January 1961, the US and Cuba reopened embassies in their respective countries in July 2015. The embargo remains in place, and the relationship between the US and Cuba remains tense.

+

Illicit migration of Cuban nationals to the US via maritime and overland routes has been a longstanding challenge. On 12 January 2017, the US and Cuba signed a Joint Statement ending the so-called "wet-foot, dry-foot" policy – by which Cuban nationals who reached US soil were permitted to stay. Illicit Cuban migration by sea has since dropped significantly, but land border crossings continue. In FY 2018, the US Coast Guard interdicted 312 Cuban nationals at sea. Also in FY 2018, 7,249 Cuban migrants presented themselves at various land border ports of entry throughout the US.

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Geography

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Location

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Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, 150 km south of Key West, Florida

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Coordinates

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latitude: 21 30 N
longitude: 80 00 W
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Area

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Total area:110,860 sq km
Land area: 109,820 sq km
Water area: 1,040 sq km
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Climate

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tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October)

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Terrain

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mostly flat to rolling plains, with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast

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Elevation

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Mean:108 m
Lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
Highest point: Pico Turquino 1,974 m
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Resources

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cobalt, nickel, iron ore, chromium, copper, salt, timber, silica, petroleum, arable land

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Land

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Agricultural:60.3%
Forest: 27.3%
Other: +
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Society

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Population

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11059062

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Etnicity

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + +
white: 64.1%
mulatto or mixed: 26.6%
black: 9.3%
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note: data represent racial self-identification from Cuba's 2012 national census

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Languages

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Spanish(official)

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Religions

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Christian: 59.2%
folk: 17.4%
other: .4%
none: 23%
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note: folk religion includes religions of African origin, spiritualism, and others intermingled with Catholicism or Protestantism; data is estimative because no authoritative source on religious affiliation exists in Cuba

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Age

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Age group of 0-14: 16.34% of total population (929927 male/877035 female)

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Age group of 15-24: 11.81% of total population (67825 male/627384 female)

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Age group of 25-54: 41.95% of total population (2335680 male/2303793 female)

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Age group of 55-64: 14.11% of total population (760165 male/799734 female)

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Age group of 65+: 15.8% of total population (794743 male/952348 female)

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Total age median:42.1
Male age median: 40.2
Female age median: 43.8
Total life expectency:79.2
Male life expectency: 76.8
Female life expectency: 81.7
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Urbanization

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People living in urban areas: 77.2% of total population

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Rate of urbanization: 0.14%

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Major urban areas:

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HAVANA: 2.140 million
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Literacy

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Total literacy:99.8%
Male literacy: +
Female literacy: +
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Government

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Government type

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communist state

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Capital city

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Havana

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Chief of state

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President Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez (elected 10 October 2019)

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Head of government

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President Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez (elected 10 October 2019)

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Legal system

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civil law system based on Spanish civil code

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State symbols

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Symbols:
royal palm

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Colors:
red, white, blue

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Anthem:
"La Bayamesa" (The Bayamo Song)

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Economy

+

Overview

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The government continues to balance the need for loosening its socialist economic system against a desire for firm political control. In April 2011, the government held the first Cuban Communist Party Congress in almost 13 years, during which leaders approved a plan for wide-ranging economic changes. Since then, the government has slowly and incrementally implemented limited economic reforms, including allowing Cubans to buy electronic appliances and cell phones, stay in hotels, and buy and sell used cars. The government has cut state sector jobs as part of the reform process, and it has opened up some retail services to "self-employment," leading to the rise of so-called "cuentapropistas" or entrepreneurs. More than 500,000 Cuban workers are currently registered as self-employed.

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The Cuban regime has updated its economic model to include permitting the private ownership and sale of real estate and new vehicles, allowing private farmers to sell agricultural goods directly to hotels, allowing the creation of non-agricultural cooperatives, adopting a new foreign investment law, and launching a "Special Development Zone" around the Mariel port.

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Since 2016, Cuba has attributed slowed economic growth in part to problems with petroleum product deliveries from Venezuela. Since late 2000, Venezuela provided petroleum products to Cuba on preferential terms, supplying at times nearly 100,000 barrels per day. Cuba paid for the oil, in part, with the services of Cuban personnel in Venezuela, including some 30,000 medical professionals.

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GDP

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GDP amount:$93.79 billion
GDP growth:1.6%
GDP per capita:$12,300
GDP savings:11.4% of GDP
GDP from agriculture:4%
GDP from industry:22.7%
GDP from services:73.4%
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Agricultural products

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sugar, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes, beans, livestock

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Industries

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petroleum, nickel, cobalt, pharmaceuticals, tobacco, construction, stee, cement, agricultural machinery, sugar

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Labor force

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Total amount:4.691 million
In agriculture:18%
In industry:10%
In services:72%
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Exports

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Total amount:$2.63 billion
Partners:Venezuela(17.8%), Spain(12.2%), Russia(7.9%), Lebanon(6.1%), Indonesia(4.5%), Germany(4.3%)
Commodities:petroleum, nickel, medical products, sugar, tobacco, fish, citrus, coffee
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Imports

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Total amount:$11.06 billion
Partners:China(22%), Spain(14%), Russia(5%), Brazil(5%), Mexico(4.9%), Italy(4.8%), US(4.5%)
Commodities:petroleum, food, machinery and equipment, chemicals
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Energy

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Electricity

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Access: 100%
Production: 19.28 billion kWh
Consumption: 16.16 billion kWh
Exports: 0 kWh
Imports: 0 kWh
Sources:
fossil fuel: 91%
nuclear: 0%
hydroelectric: 1%
other renewable sources: 8%
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Crude oil

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Production:50,000 bbl/day
Exports:0 bbl/day
Imports:112,400 bbl/day
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Refined petroleum products

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Production:104,100 bbl/day
Consumption:175,000 bbl/day
Exports:24,190 bbl/day
Imports:52,750 bbl/day
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Natural gas

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Production:1.189 billion cu m
Consumption:1.189 billion cu m
Exports:0 cu m
Imports:0 cu m
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Communication

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Telephones

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Fixed lines subscribers:1444480
Mobile cellular subscribtions:5373316
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Broadcast media

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Government owns and controls all broadcast media: five national TV channels (Cubavision, Tele Rebelde, Multivision, Educational Channel 1 and 2,) 2 international channels (Cubavision Internacional and Caribe,) 16 regional TV stations, 6 national radio networks and multiple regional stations; the Cuban government beams over the Radio-TV Marti signal; although private ownership of electronic media is prohibited, several online independent news sites exist; those that are not openly critical of the government are often tolerated; the others are blocked by the government; there are no independent TV channels, but several outlets have created strong audiovisual content (El Toque, for example); a community of young Youtubers is also growing, mostly with channels about sports, technology and fashion; Christian denominations are creating original video content to distribute via social media

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Internet

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Internet code:.cu
Total users:4,334,022
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Military and security

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Expenditure

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2.87% of GDP

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Military forces

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Revolutionary Armed Forces(FAR), Revolutionary Army(ER), Revolutionary Navy(MGR), Revolutionary Air and Air Defense Forces(DAAFAR), Youth Labor Army(EJT), Territorial Militia Troops(MTT)

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Obligation

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2-year service obligation for males, optional for females

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Transportation

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Airports

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Total:133
Paved:64
Unpaved:69
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Pipelines

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Gas:41 km
Oil:230 km
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Railways

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8,367 km

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Roadways

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Total:60,000 km
Paved:20,000 km
Unpaved:40,000 km
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Waterways

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240 km

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Transnational issues

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Disputes

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US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the facility can terminate the lease

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Trafficing

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Cuba is a source country for adults and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; child sex trafficking and child sex tourism occur in Cuba, while some Cubans are forced into prostitution in South America and the Caribbean; allegations have been made that some Cubans have been forced or coerced to work at Cuban medical missions abroad; assessing the scope of trafficking within Cuba is difficult because of the lack of information

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Rank 2- Cuba does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; Cuba’s penal code does not criminalize all forms of human trafficking, but the government reported that it is in the process of amending its criminal code to comply with the 2000 UN TIP Protocol, to which it acceded in 2013; the government in 2014 prosecuted and convicted 13 sex traffickers and provided services to the victims in those cases but does not have shelters specifically for trafficking victims; the government did not recognize forced labor as a problem and took no action to address it; state media produced newspaper articles and TV and radio programs to raise public awareness about sex trafficking

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Drugs

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territorial waters and air space serve as transshipment zone for US- and European-bound drugs; established the death penalty for certain drug-related crimes in 1999

+
+ + \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/xhtml/INDEX-INFO.xml b/xhtml/INDEX-INFO.xml new file mode 100644 index 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000..a8eeb1e672182c6f3346abce2ff126444d186af6 --- /dev/null +++ b/xhtml/INDEX-INFO.xml @@ -0,0 +1,7 @@ + + + + + + + \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/test.html b/xhtml/ITALY.html similarity index 94% rename from test.html rename to xhtml/ITALY.html index ec6524fc16280d358293377d68c32626726074bd..69989665873b7637807b13c337078210bed0c215 100644 --- a/test.html +++ b/xhtml/ITALY.html @@ -72,12 +72,12 @@ Other: - 21.5% +

Society

Population

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62,402,659

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62402659

Etnicity

@@ -108,11 +108,11 @@

Age

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Age group of 0-14: 13.45% of total population (4,292,431 male/4,097,732 female)

-

Age group of 15-24: 9.61% of total population (3,005,402 male/2,989,764 female)

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Age group of 25-54: 40.86% of total population (12,577,764 male/12,921,614 female)

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Age group of 55-64: 14% of total population (4,243,735 male/4,493,581 female)

-

Age group of 65+: 22.08% of total population (5,949,560 male/7,831,076 female)

+

Age group of 0-14: 13.45% of total population (4292431 male/4097732 female)

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Age group of 15-24: 9.61% of total population (3005402 male/2989764 female)

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Age group of 25-54: 40.86% of total population (12577764 male/12921614 female)

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Age group of 55-64: 14% of total population (4243735 male/4493581 female)

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Age group of 65+: 22.08% of total population (5949560 male/7831076 female)

@@ -291,42 +291,42 @@

Electricity

Total age median:
- + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - +
Access:Access: 100%
Production:Production: 275.3 billion kWh
Consumption:Consumption: 293.5 billion kWh
Exports:Exports: 6.155 billion kWh
Imports:Imports: 43.18 billion kWh
Sources:
fossil fuel:fossil fuel: 54%
nuclear:nuclear: 0%
hydroelectric:hydroelectric: 14%
other renewable sources:other renewable sources: 32%
@@ -388,11 +388,11 @@ - + - +
Fixed lines subscribers:20,396,60320396603
Mobile cellular subscribtions:83,342,48683342486

Broadcast media

diff --git a/xhtml/NAMIBIA.html b/xhtml/NAMIBIA.html new file mode 100644 index 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000..63e4121acdef78ebd95daa3d641fe219e0eebd87 --- /dev/null +++ b/xhtml/NAMIBIA.html @@ -0,0 +1,485 @@ + + + + Namibia + + +
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Namibia

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Background

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Namibia gained independence in 1990. Prior to independence, apartheid South Africa occupied the former German colony known as South-West Africa during World War I and administered it as a mandate until after World War II, when it annexed the territory. In 1966, the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) guerrilla group launched a war of independence for the area that became Namibia, but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its administration in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. Namibia has been governed by SWAPO since the country won independence, though the party has dropped much of its Marxist ideology. President Hage GEINGOB was elected in 2014 in a landslide victory, replacing Hifikepunye POHAMBA who stepped down after serving two terms. SWAPO retained its parliamentary super majority in the 2014 elections. In 2019 elections, GEINGOB was reelected but by a substantially reduced majority and SWAPO narrowly lost its super majority in parliament.

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Geography

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Location

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Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and South Africa

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Coordinates

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latitude: 22 00 S
longitude: 17 00 E
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Area

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Total area:824,292 sq km
Land area: 823,290 sq km
Water area: 1,002 sq km
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Climate

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desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic

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Terrain

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mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east

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Elevation

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Mean:1,141 m
Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Konigstein on Brandberg 2,573 m
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Resources

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diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, silver, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, tungsten, zinc, salt, hydropower, fish, oil, coal, iron ore

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Land

+ + + + + + + + + + + + +
Agricultural:47.2%
Forest: 8.8%
Other: +
+

Society

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Population

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2630073

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Etnicity

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Ovambo: 50%
Kavangos: 9%
Herero: 7%
Damara: 7%
mixed European and African ancestry: 6.5%
European: 6%
Nama: 5%
Caprivian: 4%
San: 3%
Baster: 2%
Tswana: 5%
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Languages

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English(official), Oshiwambo languages, Nama/Damara, Kavango languages, Afrikaans, Herero languages, Zambezi languages

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Religions

+ + + + + + + + + +
Christian: 80% to 90%
indigenous beliefs: 10% to 20%
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Age

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Age group of 0-14: 35.68% of total population (473937 male/464453 female)

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Age group of 15-24: 20.27% of total population (267106 male/265882 female)

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Age group of 25-54: 35.47% of total population (449132 male/483811 female)

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Age group of 55-64: 4.68% of total population (54589 male/68619 female)

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Age group of 65+: 3.9% of total population (43596 male/58948 female)

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Total age median:21.8
Male age median: 21.1
Female age median: 22.6
Total life expectency:65.3
Male life expectency: 63.3
Female life expectency: 67.3
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Urbanization

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People living in urban areas: 52% of total population

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Rate of urbanization: 4.2%

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Major urban areas:

+ + + + + +
WINDHOEK: 431,000
+

Literacy

+ + + + + + + + + + + +
Total literacy:91.5%
Male literacy: +
Female literacy: +
+

Government

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Government type

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presidential republic

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Capital city

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Windhoek

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Chief of state

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President Hage GEINGOB (elected 21 March 2015)

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Head of government

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President Hage GEINGOB (elected 21 March 2015)

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Legal system

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mixed legal system of uncodified civil law based on Roman-Dutch law and customary law

+

State symbols

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Symbols:
oryx (antelope)

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Colors:
blue, red, green, white, yellow

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Anthem:
Namibia, Land of the Brave

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Economy

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Overview

+

Namibia’s economy is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for about 12.5% of GDP, but provides more than 50% of foreign exchange earnings. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Marine diamond mining is increasingly important as the terrestrial diamond supply has dwindled. The rising cost of mining diamonds, especially from the sea, combined with increased diamond production in Russia and China, has reduced profit margins. Namibian authorities have emphasized the need to add value to raw materials, do more in-country manufacturing, and exploit the services market, especially in the logistics and transportation sectors.

+

Namibia is one of the world’s largest producers of uranium. The Chinese-owned Husab uranium mine began producing uranium ore in 2017, and is expected to reach full production in August 2018 and produce 15 million pounds of uranium a year. Namibia also produces large quantities of zinc and is a smaller producer of gold and copper. Namibia's economy remains vulnerable to world commodity price fluctuations and drought.

+

Namibia normally imports about 50% of its cereal requirements; in drought years, food shortages are problematic in rural areas. A high per capita GDP, relative to the region, obscures one of the world's most unequal income distributions; the current government has prioritized exploring wealth redistribution schemes while trying to maintain a pro-business environment. GDP growth in 2017 slowed to about 1%, however, due to contractions in both the construction and mining sectors, as well as an ongoing drought. Growth is expected to recover modestly in 2018.

+

A five-year Millennium Challenge Corporation compact ended in September 2014. As an upper middle income country, Namibia is ineligible for a second compact. The Namibian economy is closely linked to South Africa with the Namibian dollar pegged one-to-one to the South African rand. Namibia receives 30%-40% of its revenues from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU); volatility in the size of Namibia's annual SACU allotment and global mineral prices complicates budget planning.

+

GDP

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
GDP amount:$26.6 billion
GDP growth: +
GDP per capita:-0.8%
GDP savings:$11,200
GDP from agriculture:6.7%
GDP from industry:26.3%
GDP from services:67%
+

Agricultural products

+

millet, sorghum, peanuts, grapes, livestock, fish

+

Industries

+

meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products, pasta, beverages, mining

+

Labor force

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Total amount:956,800
In agriculture:31%
In industry:14%
In services:54%
+

Exports

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Total amount:$3.995 billion
Partners:South Africa(27.1%), Botswana(14.9%), Switzerland(12%), Zambia(5.7%), China(4.6%), Italy(4.4%)
Commodities:diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium, cattle, white fish and mollusks
+

Imports

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Total amount:$5.384 billion
Partners:South Africa(61.4%)
Commodities:foodstuffs, petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals
+

Energy

+

Electricity

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Access: 51.8%
Production: 1.403 billion kWh
Consumption: 3.891 billion kWh
Exports: 88 million kWh
Imports: 3.073 billion kWh
Sources:
fossil fuel: 28%
nuclear: 0%
hydroelectric: 64%
other renewable sources: 8%
+

Crude oil

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Production:0 bbl/day
Exports:0 bbl/day
Imports:0 bbl/day
+

Refined petroleum products

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Production:0 bbl/day
Consumption:27,000 bbl/day
Exports:80 bbl/day
Imports:26,270 bbl/day
+

Natural gas

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Production:0 cu m
Consumption:0 cu m
Exports:0 cu m
Imports:0 cu m
+

Communication

+

Telephones

+ + + + + + + + + +
Fixed lines subscribers:154816
Mobile cellular subscribtions:2759293
+

Broadcast media

+

1 private and 1 state-run TV station; satellite and cable TV service available; state-run radio service broadcasts in multiple languages; about a dozen private radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available

+

Internet

+ + + + + + + + + +
Internet code:.na
Total users:756,118
+

Military and security

+

Expenditure

+

3.35% of GDP

+

Military forces

+

Namibian Defense Force(NDF), Army, Navy, Air Force

+

Obligation

+

no conscription

+

Transportation

+

Airports

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Total:112
Paved:19
Unpaved:93
+

Pipelines

+ + + + + + + + + +
Gas:0 km
Oil:0 km
+

Railways

+

2,628 km

+

Roadways

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Total:48,875 km
Paved:7,893 km
Unpaved:40,982 km
+

Waterways

+

0 km

+

Transnational issues

+

Disputes

+

concerns from international experts and local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology in Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls along the Angola-Namibia border; the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River; Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river

+

Trafficing

+

Namibia is a country of origin and destination for children and, to a lesser extent, women subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; victims, lured by promises of legitimate jobs, are forced to work in urban centers and on commercial farms; traffickers exploit Namibian children, as well as children from Angola, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, for forced labor in agriculture, cattle herding, domestic service, fishing, and street vending; children are also forced into prostitution, often catering to tourists from southern Africa and Europe; San and Zemba children are particularly vulnerable; foreign adults and Namibian adults and children are reportedly subjected to forced labor in Chinese-owned retail, construction, and fishing operations

+

Rank 2- Namibia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; Namibia was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; in 2015, the Child Care and Protection Bill passed, criminalizing child trafficking; the government’s first sex trafficking prosecution remained pending; no new prosecutions were initiated and no trafficking offenders have ever been convicted; accusations of forced labor at Chinese construction and mining companies continue to go uninvestigated; authorities failed to fully implement victim identification and referral processes, which led to the deportation of possible victims

+
+ + \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/xhtml/SOUTHKOREA.html b/xhtml/SOUTHKOREA.html new file mode 100644 index 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000..2505f046253e39f6ecccbf9e8ada53d7c872d9e7 --- /dev/null +++ b/xhtml/SOUTHKOREA.html @@ -0,0 +1,458 @@ + + + + South Korea + + +
+

South Korea

+
+
+

Background

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An independent kingdom for much of its long history, Korea was occupied by Japan beginning in 1905 following the Russo-Japanese War. In 1910, Tokyo formally annexed the entire Peninsula. Korea regained its independence following Japan's surrender to the US in 1945. After World War II, a democratic government (Republic of Korea, ROK) was set up in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula while a communist-style government was installed in the north (Democratic People's Republic of Korea, DPRK). During the Korean War (1950-53), US troops and UN forces fought alongside ROK soldiers to defend South Korea from a DPRK invasion supported by communist China and the Soviet Union. A 1953 armistice split the Peninsula along a demilitarized zone at about the 38th parallel. PARK Chung-hee took over leadership of the country in a 1961 coup. During his regime, from 1961 to 1979, South Korea achieved rapid economic growth, with per capita income rising to roughly 17 times the level of North Korea in 1979.

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South Korea held its first free presidential election under a revised democratic constitution in 1987, with former ROK Army general ROH Tae-woo winning a close race. In 1993, KIM Young-sam (1993-98) became the first civilian president of South Korea's new democratic era. President KIM Dae-jung (1998-2003) won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2000 for his contributions to South Korean democracy and his "Sunshine" policy of engagement with North Korea. President PARK Geun-hye, daughter of former ROK President PARK Chung-hee, took office in February 2013 as South Korea's first female leader. In December 2016, the National Assembly passed an impeachment motion against President PARK over her alleged involvement in a corruption and influence-peddling scandal, immediately suspending her presidential authorities. The impeachment was upheld in March 2017, triggering an early presidential election in May 2017 won by MOON Jae-in. South Korea hosted the Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games in February 2018, in which North Korea also participated. Discord with North Korea has permeated inter-Korean relations for much of the past decade, highlighted by the North's attacks on a South Korean ship and island in 2010, the exchange of artillery fire across the DMZ in 2015, and multiple nuclear and missile tests in 2016 and 2017. North Korea’s participation in the Winter Olympics, dispatch of a senior delegation to Seoul, and three inter-Korean summits in 2018 appear to have ushered in a temporary period of respite, buoyed by the historic US-DPRK summits in 2018 and 2019.

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Geography

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Location

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Eastern Asia, southern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea

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Coordinates

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latitude: 37 00 N
longitude: 127 30 E
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Area

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Total area:99,720 sq km
Land area: 96,920 sq km
Water area: 2,800 sq km
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Climate

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temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter; cold winters

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Terrain

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mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west and south

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Elevation

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Mean:282 m
Lowest point: Sea of Japan 0 m
Highest point: Halla-san 1,950 m
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Resources

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coal, tungsten, graphite, molybdenum, lead, hydropower potential

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Land

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Agricultural:18.1%
Forest: 63.9%
Other: +
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Society

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Population

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51835110

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Etnicity

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homogeneous: 100%
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Languages

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Korean(official), English

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Religions

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Protestant: 19.7%
Buddhist: 15.5%
Catholic: 7.9%
none: 56.9%
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note: many people also carry on at least some Confucian traditions and practices

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Age

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Age group of 0-14: 12.77% of total population (3401815 male/3219589 female)

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Age group of 15-24: 11.18% of total population (3030027 male/2764860 female)

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Age group of 25-54: 44.66% of total population (12043626 male/11106927 female)

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Age group of 55-64: 15.47% of total population (3927496 male/4089033 female)

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Age group of 65+: 15.92% of total population (3572855 male/4678882 female)

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Total age median:43.2
Male age median: 41.6
Female age median: 45
Total life expectency:82.6
Male life expectency: 79.4
Female life expectency: 85.9
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Urbanization

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People living in urban areas: 81.4% of total population

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Rate of urbanization: 0.3%

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Major urban areas:

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SEOUL: 9.963 million
Busan: 3.465 million
Incheon: 2.801 million
Daegu: 2.199 million
Daejon: 1.566 million
Gwangju: 1.522 million
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Government

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Government type

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presidential republic

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Capital city

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Seoul

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Chief of state

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President MOON Jae-in (elected 10 May 2017)

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Head of government

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President MOON Jae-in (elected 10 May 2017)

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Legal system

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mixed legal system combining European civil law, Anglo-American law, and Chinese classical thought

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State symbols

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Symbols:
taegeuk (yin yang symbol), Hibiscus syriacus (Rose of Sharon), Siberian tiger

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Colors:
red, white, blue, black

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Anthem:
"Aegukga" (Patriotic Song)

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Economy

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Overview

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After emerging from the 1950-53 war with North Korea, South Korea emerged as one of the 20th century’s most remarkable economic success stories, becoming a developed, globally connected, high-technology society within decades. In the 1960s, GDP per capita was comparable with levels in the poorest countries in the world. In 2004, South Korea's GDP surpassed one trillion dollars.

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Beginning in the 1960s under President PARK Chung-hee, the government promoted the import of raw materials and technology, encouraged saving and investment over consumption, kept wages low, and directed resources to export-oriented industries that remain important to the economy to this day. Growth surged under these policies, and frequently reached double-digits in the 1960s and 1970s. Growth gradually moderated in the 1990s as the economy matured, but remained strong enough to propel South Korea into the ranks of the advanced economies of the OECD by 1997. These policies also led to the emergence of family-owned chaebol conglomerates such as Daewoo, Hyundai, and Samsung, which retained their dominant positions even as the government loosened its grip on the economy amid the political changes of the 1980s and 1990s.

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The Asian financial crisis of 1997-98 hit South Korea’s companies hard because of their excessive reliance on short-term borrowing, and GDP ultimately plunged by 7% in 1998. South Korea tackled difficult economic reforms following the crisis, including restructuring some chaebols, increasing labor market flexibility, and opening up to more foreign investment and imports. These steps lead to a relatively rapid economic recovery. South Korea also began expanding its network of free trade agreements to help bolster exports, and has since implemented 16 free trade agreements covering 58 countries—including the United State and China—that collectively cover more than three-quarters of global GDP.

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In 2017, the election of President MOON Jae-in brought a surge in consumer confidence, in part, because of his successful efforts to increase wages and government spending. These factors combined with an uptick in export growth to drive real GDP growth to more than 3%, despite disruptions in South Korea’s trade with China over the deployment of a US missile defense system in South Korea.

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In 2018 and beyond, South Korea will contend with gradually slowing economic growth - in the 2-3% range - not uncommon for advanced economies. This could be partially offset by efforts to address challenges arising from its rapidly aging population, inflexible labor market, continued dominance of the chaebols, and heavy reliance on exports rather than domestic consumption. Socioeconomic problems also persist, and include rising inequality, poverty among the elderly, high youth unemployment, long working hours, low worker productivity, and corruption.

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GDP

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GDP amount:$2.035 trillion
GDP growth:3.1%
GDP per capita:$39,500
GDP savings:36.6% of GDP
GDP from agriculture:2.2%
GDP from industry:39.3%
GDP from services:58.3%
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Agricultural products

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rice, root crops, barley, vegetables, fruit, cattle, pigs, chickens, milk, eggs, fish

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Industries

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electronics, telecommunications, automobile production, chemicals, shipbuilding, steel

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Labor force

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Total amount:27.75 million
In agriculture:4.8%
In industry:24.6%
In services:70.6%
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Exports

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Total amount:$577.4 billion
Partners:China(25.1%), US(12.2%), Vietnam(8.2%), Hong Kong(6.9%), Japan(4.7%)
Commodities:semiconductors, petrochemicals, automobile/auto parts, ships, wireless communication equipment, flat displays, steel, electronics, plastics, computers
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Imports

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Total amount:$457.5 billion
Partners:China(20.5%), Japan(11.5%), US(10.5%), Germany(4.2%), Saudi Arabia(4.1%)
Commodities:crude oil/petroleum products, semiconductors, natural gas, coal, steel, computers, wireless communication equipment, automobiles, fine chemicals, textiles
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Energy

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Electricity

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Access: 100%
Production: 526 billion kWh
Consumption: 507.6 billion kWh
Exports: 0 kWh
Imports: 0 kWh
Sources:
fossil fuel: 70%
nuclear: 21%
hydroelectric: 2%
other renewable sources: 8%
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Crude oil

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Production:0 bbl/day
Exports:0 bbl/day
Imports:3.057 million bbl/day
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Refined petroleum products

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Production:3.302 million bbl/day
Consumption:2.584 million bbl/day
Exports:1.396 million bbl/day
Imports:908,800 bbl/day
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Natural gas

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Production:339.8 million cu m
Consumption:45.28 billion cu m
Exports:0 cu m
Imports:48.65 billion cu m
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Communication

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Telephones

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Fixed lines subscribers:25906849
Mobile cellular subscribtions:66355778
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Broadcast media

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multiple national TV networks with 2 of the 3 largest networks publicly operated; the largest privately owned network, Seoul Broadcasting Service (SBS), has ties with other commercial TV networks; cable and satellite TV subscription services available; publicly operated radio broadcast networks and many privately owned radio broadcasting networks, each with multiple affiliates, and independent local stations

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Internet

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Internet code:.kr
Total users:44.153 million
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Military and security

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Expenditure

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2.62% of GDP

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Military forces

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Republic of Korea Army(ROKA), Navy(ROKN), Air Force(ROKAF)

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Obligation

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minimum conscript service obligation varies by service- 21 months (Army, Marines), 23 months (Navy), 24 months (Air Force)

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Transportation

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Airports

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Total:111
Paved:71
Unpaved:40
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Pipelines

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Gas:3790 km
Oil:16 km
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Railways

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3,979 km

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Roadways

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Total:100,428 km
Paved:92,795 km
Unpaved:7,633 km
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Waterways

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1,600 km

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Transnational issues

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Disputes

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Military Demarcation Line within the 4-km-wide Demilitarized Zone has separated North from South Korea since 1953; periodic incidents with North Korea in the Yellow Sea over the Northern Limit Line, which South Korea claims as a maritime boundary; South Korea and Japan claim Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima), occupied by South Korea since 1954

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Select country

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Select country

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Select country

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