Commit d6a03503 authored by Adam Svoboda's avatar Adam Svoboda

finnished xsl-fo output and added pictures and links

parent de2d4c60
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<country cid="c4"> <country cid="c4">
<name>Cuba</name> <name id="c4name">Cuba</name>
<background> <background id="c4back">
<par>The native Amerindian population of Cuba began to decline after the European discovery of the island by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 and following its development as a Spanish colony during the next several centuries. Large numbers of African slaves were imported to work the coffee and sugar plantations, and Havana became the launching point for the annual treasure fleets bound for Spain from Mexico and Peru. Spanish rule eventually provoked an independence movement and occasional rebellions were harshly suppressed. US intervention during the Spanish-American War in 1898 assisted the Cubans in overthrowing Spanish rule. The Treaty of Paris established Cuban independence from Spain in 1898 and, following three-and-a-half years of subsequent US military rule, Cuba became an independent republic in 1902 after which the island experienced a string of governments mostly dominated by the military and corrupt politicians. Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his authoritarian rule held the subsequent regime together for nearly five decades. He stepped down as president in February 2008 in favor of his younger brother Raul CASTRO. Cuba's communist revolution, with Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin America and Africa during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez, hand-picked by Raul CASTRO to succeed him, was approved as president by the National Assembly and took office on 19 April 2018.</par> <par>The native Amerindian population of Cuba began to decline after the European discovery of the island by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 and following its development as a Spanish colony during the next several centuries. Large numbers of African slaves were imported to work the coffee and sugar plantations, and Havana became the launching point for the annual treasure fleets bound for Spain from Mexico and Peru. Spanish rule eventually provoked an independence movement and occasional rebellions were harshly suppressed. US intervention during the Spanish-American War in 1898 assisted the Cubans in overthrowing Spanish rule. The Treaty of Paris established Cuban independence from Spain in 1898 and, following three-and-a-half years of subsequent US military rule, Cuba became an independent republic in 1902 after which the island experienced a string of governments mostly dominated by the military and corrupt politicians. Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his authoritarian rule held the subsequent regime together for nearly five decades. He stepped down as president in February 2008 in favor of his younger brother Raul CASTRO. Cuba's communist revolution, with Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin America and Africa during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez, hand-picked by Raul CASTRO to succeed him, was approved as president by the National Assembly and took office on 19 April 2018.</par>
<par>The country faced a severe economic downturn in 1990 following the withdrawal of former Soviet subsidies worth $4-6 billion annually. Cuba traditionally and consistently portrays the US embargo, in place since 1961, as the source of its difficulties. As a result of efforts begun in December 2014 to re-establish diplomatic relations with the Cuban Government, which were severed in January 1961, the US and Cuba reopened embassies in their respective countries in July 2015. The embargo remains in place, and the relationship between the US and Cuba remains tense. </par> <par>The country faced a severe economic downturn in 1990 following the withdrawal of former Soviet subsidies worth $4-6 billion annually. Cuba traditionally and consistently portrays the US embargo, in place since 1961, as the source of its difficulties. As a result of efforts begun in December 2014 to re-establish diplomatic relations with the Cuban Government, which were severed in January 1961, the US and Cuba reopened embassies in their respective countries in July 2015. The embargo remains in place, and the relationship between the US and Cuba remains tense. </par>
<par>Illicit migration of Cuban nationals to the US via maritime and overland routes has been a longstanding challenge. On 12 January 2017, the US and Cuba signed a Joint Statement ending the so-called "wet-foot, dry-foot" policy – by which Cuban nationals who reached US soil were permitted to stay. Illicit Cuban migration by sea has since dropped significantly, but land border crossings continue. In FY 2018, the US Coast Guard interdicted 312 Cuban nationals at sea. Also in FY 2018, 7,249 Cuban migrants presented themselves at various land border ports of entry throughout the US.</par> <par>Illicit migration of Cuban nationals to the US via maritime and overland routes has been a longstanding challenge. On 12 January 2017, the US and Cuba signed a Joint Statement ending the so-called "wet-foot, dry-foot" policy – by which Cuban nationals who reached US soil were permitted to stay. Illicit Cuban migration by sea has since dropped significantly, but land border crossings continue. In FY 2018, the US Coast Guard interdicted 312 Cuban nationals at sea. Also in FY 2018, 7,249 Cuban migrants presented themselves at various land border ports of entry throughout the US.</par>
</background> </background>
<geography> <geography id="c4geog">
<location>Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, 150 km south of Key West, Florida</location> <location>Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, 150 km south of Key West, Florida</location>
<coordinates> <coordinates>
<latitude>21 30 N</latitude> <latitude>21 30 N</latitude>
...@@ -42,7 +42,7 @@ ...@@ -42,7 +42,7 @@
<l_other>12.4%</l_other> <l_other>12.4%</l_other>
</land> </land>
</geography> </geography>
<society> <society id="c4soci">
<population>11059062</population> <population>11059062</population>
<nationality> <nationality>
<n_noun>Cuban(s)</n_noun> <n_noun>Cuban(s)</n_noun>
...@@ -143,7 +143,7 @@ ...@@ -143,7 +143,7 @@
<l_female>99.8%</l_female> <l_female>99.8%</l_female>
</literacy> </literacy>
</society> </society>
<government> <government id="c4gove">
<government_type>communist state</government_type> <government_type>communist state</government_type>
<capital>Havana</capital> <capital>Havana</capital>
<chief_of_state> <chief_of_state>
...@@ -163,7 +163,7 @@ ...@@ -163,7 +163,7 @@
<anthem>"La Bayamesa" (The Bayamo Song)</anthem> <anthem>"La Bayamesa" (The Bayamo Song)</anthem>
</symbols> </symbols>
</government> </government>
<economy> <economy id="c4econ">
<e_overview> <e_overview>
<par>The government continues to balance the need for loosening its socialist economic system against a desire for firm political control. In April 2011, the government held the first Cuban Communist Party Congress in almost 13 years, during which leaders approved a plan for wide-ranging economic changes. Since then, the government has slowly and incrementally implemented limited economic reforms, including allowing Cubans to buy electronic appliances and cell phones, stay in hotels, and buy and sell used cars. The government has cut state sector jobs as part of the reform process, and it has opened up some retail services to "self-employment," leading to the rise of so-called "cuentapropistas" or entrepreneurs. More than 500,000 Cuban workers are currently registered as self-employed.</par> <par>The government continues to balance the need for loosening its socialist economic system against a desire for firm political control. In April 2011, the government held the first Cuban Communist Party Congress in almost 13 years, during which leaders approved a plan for wide-ranging economic changes. Since then, the government has slowly and incrementally implemented limited economic reforms, including allowing Cubans to buy electronic appliances and cell phones, stay in hotels, and buy and sell used cars. The government has cut state sector jobs as part of the reform process, and it has opened up some retail services to "self-employment," leading to the rise of so-called "cuentapropistas" or entrepreneurs. More than 500,000 Cuban workers are currently registered as self-employed.</par>
<par>The Cuban regime has updated its economic model to include permitting the private ownership and sale of real estate and new vehicles, allowing private farmers to sell agricultural goods directly to hotels, allowing the creation of non-agricultural cooperatives, adopting a new foreign investment law, and launching a "Special Development Zone" around the Mariel port.</par> <par>The Cuban regime has updated its economic model to include permitting the private ownership and sale of real estate and new vehicles, allowing private farmers to sell agricultural goods directly to hotels, allowing the creation of non-agricultural cooperatives, adopting a new foreign investment law, and launching a "Special Development Zone" around the Mariel port.</par>
...@@ -293,7 +293,7 @@ ...@@ -293,7 +293,7 @@
</imports> </imports>
</exports_and_imports> </exports_and_imports>
</economy> </economy>
<energy> <energy id="c4ener">
<electricity> <electricity>
<e_access>100%</e_access> <e_access>100%</e_access>
<e_production>19.28 billion kWh</e_production> <e_production>19.28 billion kWh</e_production>
...@@ -337,7 +337,7 @@ ...@@ -337,7 +337,7 @@
<ng_imports>0 cu m</ng_imports> <ng_imports>0 cu m</ng_imports>
</natural_gas> </natural_gas>
</energy> </energy>
<communication> <communication id="c4comm">
<telephones> <telephones>
<t_fixed_lines_subscribtions>1444480</t_fixed_lines_subscribtions> <t_fixed_lines_subscribtions>1444480</t_fixed_lines_subscribtions>
<t_mobile_cellular_subscribtions>5373316</t_mobile_cellular_subscribtions> <t_mobile_cellular_subscribtions>5373316</t_mobile_cellular_subscribtions>
...@@ -349,7 +349,7 @@ ...@@ -349,7 +349,7 @@
<i_note>private citizens are prohibited from buying computers or accessing the Internet without special authorization; foreigners may access the Internet in large hotels but are subject to firewalls; some Cubans buy illegal passwords on the black market or take advantage of public outlets to access limited email and the government-controlled "intranet"</i_note> <i_note>private citizens are prohibited from buying computers or accessing the Internet without special authorization; foreigners may access the Internet in large hotels but are subject to firewalls; some Cubans buy illegal passwords on the black market or take advantage of public outlets to access limited email and the government-controlled "intranet"</i_note>
</internet> </internet>
</communication> </communication>
<military_and_security> <military_and_security id="c4mili">
<expenditure>2.87% of GDP</expenditure> <expenditure>2.87% of GDP</expenditure>
<military_forces> <military_forces>
<military_force> <military_force>
...@@ -379,7 +379,7 @@ ...@@ -379,7 +379,7 @@
</military_forces> </military_forces>
<obligation>2-year service obligation for males, optional for females</obligation> <obligation>2-year service obligation for males, optional for females</obligation>
</military_and_security> </military_and_security>
<transportation> <transportation id="c4transp">
<airports> <airports>
<ap_total>133</ap_total> <ap_total>133</ap_total>
<ap_paved>64</ap_paved> <ap_paved>64</ap_paved>
...@@ -397,7 +397,7 @@ ...@@ -397,7 +397,7 @@
</roadways> </roadways>
<waterways>240 km</waterways> <waterways>240 km</waterways>
</transportation> </transportation>
<transnational_issues> <transnational_issues id="c4transn">
<disputes>US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the facility can terminate the lease</disputes> <disputes>US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the facility can terminate the lease</disputes>
<trafficing> <trafficing>
<t_situation>Cuba is a source country for adults and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; child sex trafficking and child sex tourism occur in Cuba, while some Cubans are forced into prostitution in South America and the Caribbean; allegations have been made that some Cubans have been forced or coerced to work at Cuban medical missions abroad; assessing the scope of trafficking within Cuba is difficult because of the lack of information</t_situation> <t_situation>Cuba is a source country for adults and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; child sex trafficking and child sex tourism occur in Cuba, while some Cubans are forced into prostitution in South America and the Caribbean; allegations have been made that some Cubans have been forced or coerced to work at Cuban medical missions abroad; assessing the scope of trafficking within Cuba is difficult because of the lack of information</t_situation>
......
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<country cid="c3"> <country cid="c3">
<name>Italy</name> <name id="c3name">Italy</name>
<background> <background id="c3back">
<par>Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy is a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC) and its subsequent successors the EC and the EU. It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include sluggish economic growth, high youth and female unemployment, organized crime, corruption, and economic disparities between southern Italy and the more prosperous north.</par> <par>Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy is a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC) and its subsequent successors the EC and the EU. It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include sluggish economic growth, high youth and female unemployment, organized crime, corruption, and economic disparities between southern Italy and the more prosperous north.</par>
</background> </background>
<geography> <geography id="c3geog">
<location>Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia</location> <location>Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia</location>
<coordinates> <coordinates>
<latitude>42 50 N</latitude> <latitude>42 50 N</latitude>
...@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@ ...@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@
<l_other>21.5%</l_other> <l_other>21.5%</l_other>
</land> </land>
</geography> </geography>
<society> <society id="c3soci">
<population>62402659</population> <population>62402659</population>
<nationality> <nationality>
<n_noun>Italian(s)</n_noun> <n_noun>Italian(s)</n_noun>
...@@ -160,7 +160,7 @@ ...@@ -160,7 +160,7 @@
<l_female>99%</l_female> <l_female>99%</l_female>
</literacy> </literacy>
</society> </society>
<government> <government id="c3gove">
<government_type>parliamentary republic</government_type> <government_type>parliamentary republic</government_type>
<capital>Rome</capital> <capital>Rome</capital>
<chief_of_state> <chief_of_state>
...@@ -180,7 +180,7 @@ ...@@ -180,7 +180,7 @@
<anthem>"Il Canto degli Italiani" (The Song of the Italians)</anthem> <anthem>"Il Canto degli Italiani" (The Song of the Italians)</anthem>
</symbols> </symbols>
</government> </government>
<economy> <economy id="c3econ">
<e_overview> <e_overview>
<par>Italy’s economy comprises a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less-developed, highly subsidized, agricultural south, with a legacy of unemployment and underdevelopment. The Italian economy is driven in large part by the manufacture of high-quality consumer goods produced by small and medium-sized enterprises, many of them family-owned. Italy also has a sizable underground economy, which by some estimates accounts for as much as 17% of GDP. These activities are most common within the agriculture, construction, and service sectors.</par> <par>Italy’s economy comprises a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less-developed, highly subsidized, agricultural south, with a legacy of unemployment and underdevelopment. The Italian economy is driven in large part by the manufacture of high-quality consumer goods produced by small and medium-sized enterprises, many of them family-owned. Italy also has a sizable underground economy, which by some estimates accounts for as much as 17% of GDP. These activities are most common within the agriculture, construction, and service sectors.</par>
<par>Italy is the third-largest economy in the euro zone, but its exceptionally high public debt and structural impediments to growth have rendered it vulnerable to scrutiny by financial markets. Public debt has increased steadily since 2007, reaching 131% of GDP in 2017. Investor concerns about Italy and the broader euro-zone crisis eased in 2013, bringing down Italy's borrowing costs on sovereign government debt from euro-era records. The government still faces pressure from investors and European partners to sustain its efforts to address Italy's longstanding structural economic problems, including labor market inefficiencies, a sluggish judicial system, and a weak banking sector. Italy’s economy returned to modest growth in late 2014 for the first time since 2011. In 2015-16, Italy’s economy grew at about 1% each year, and in 2017 growth accelerated to 1.5% of GDP. In 2017, overall unemployment was 11.4%, but youth unemployment remained high at 37.1%. GDP growth is projected to slow slightly in 2018.</par> <par>Italy is the third-largest economy in the euro zone, but its exceptionally high public debt and structural impediments to growth have rendered it vulnerable to scrutiny by financial markets. Public debt has increased steadily since 2007, reaching 131% of GDP in 2017. Investor concerns about Italy and the broader euro-zone crisis eased in 2013, bringing down Italy's borrowing costs on sovereign government debt from euro-era records. The government still faces pressure from investors and European partners to sustain its efforts to address Italy's longstanding structural economic problems, including labor market inefficiencies, a sluggish judicial system, and a weak banking sector. Italy’s economy returned to modest growth in late 2014 for the first time since 2011. In 2015-16, Italy’s economy grew at about 1% each year, and in 2017 growth accelerated to 1.5% of GDP. In 2017, overall unemployment was 11.4%, but youth unemployment remained high at 37.1%. GDP growth is projected to slow slightly in 2018.</par>
...@@ -316,7 +316,7 @@ ...@@ -316,7 +316,7 @@
</imports> </imports>
</exports_and_imports> </exports_and_imports>
</economy> </economy>
<energy> <energy id="c3ener">
<electricity> <electricity>
<e_access>100%</e_access> <e_access>100%</e_access>
<e_production>275.3 billion kWh</e_production> <e_production>275.3 billion kWh</e_production>
...@@ -360,7 +360,7 @@ ...@@ -360,7 +360,7 @@
<ng_imports>69.66 billion cu m</ng_imports> <ng_imports>69.66 billion cu m</ng_imports>
</natural_gas> </natural_gas>
</energy> </energy>
<communication> <communication id="c3comm">
<telephones> <telephones>
<t_fixed_lines_subscribtions>20396603</t_fixed_lines_subscribtions> <t_fixed_lines_subscribtions>20396603</t_fixed_lines_subscribtions>
<t_mobile_cellular_subscribtions>83342486</t_mobile_cellular_subscribtions> <t_mobile_cellular_subscribtions>83342486</t_mobile_cellular_subscribtions>
...@@ -371,7 +371,7 @@ ...@@ -371,7 +371,7 @@
<i_total_users>38,025,661</i_total_users> <i_total_users>38,025,661</i_total_users>
</internet> </internet>
</communication> </communication>
<military_and_security> <military_and_security id="c3mili">
<expenditure>1.22% of GDP</expenditure> <expenditure>1.22% of GDP</expenditure>
<military_forces> <military_forces>
<military_force> <military_force>
...@@ -393,7 +393,7 @@ ...@@ -393,7 +393,7 @@
</military_forces> </military_forces>
<obligation>Italian citizenship required; 1-year service obligation</obligation> <obligation>Italian citizenship required; 1-year service obligation</obligation>
</military_and_security> </military_and_security>
<transportation> <transportation id="c3transp">
<airports> <airports>
<ap_total>129</ap_total> <ap_total>129</ap_total>
<ap_paved>98</ap_paved> <ap_paved>98</ap_paved>
...@@ -411,7 +411,7 @@ ...@@ -411,7 +411,7 @@
</roadways> </roadways>
<waterways>2,400 km</waterways> <waterways>2,400 km</waterways>
</transportation> </transportation>
<transnational_issues> <transnational_issues id="c3transn">
<disputes>taly's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa</disputes> <disputes>taly's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa</disputes>
<drugs>important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; money laundering by organized crime and from smuggling</drugs> <drugs>important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; money laundering by organized crime and from smuggling</drugs>
</transnational_issues> </transnational_issues>
......
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<country cid="c2"> <country cid="c2">
<name>Namibia</name> <name id="c2name">Namibia</name>
<background> <background id="c2back">
<par>Namibia gained independence in 1990. Prior to independence, apartheid South Africa occupied the former German colony known as South-West Africa during World War I and administered it as a mandate until after World War II, when it annexed the territory. In 1966, the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) guerrilla group launched a war of independence for the area that became Namibia, but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its administration in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. Namibia has been governed by SWAPO since the country won independence, though the party has dropped much of its Marxist ideology. President Hage GEINGOB was elected in 2014 in a landslide victory, replacing Hifikepunye POHAMBA who stepped down after serving two terms. SWAPO retained its parliamentary super majority in the 2014 elections. In 2019 elections, GEINGOB was reelected but by a substantially reduced majority and SWAPO narrowly lost its super majority in parliament.</par> <par>Namibia gained independence in 1990. Prior to independence, apartheid South Africa occupied the former German colony known as South-West Africa during World War I and administered it as a mandate until after World War II, when it annexed the territory. In 1966, the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) guerrilla group launched a war of independence for the area that became Namibia, but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its administration in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. Namibia has been governed by SWAPO since the country won independence, though the party has dropped much of its Marxist ideology. President Hage GEINGOB was elected in 2014 in a landslide victory, replacing Hifikepunye POHAMBA who stepped down after serving two terms. SWAPO retained its parliamentary super majority in the 2014 elections. In 2019 elections, GEINGOB was reelected but by a substantially reduced majority and SWAPO narrowly lost its super majority in parliament.</par>
</background> </background>
<geography> <geography id="c2geog">
<location>Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and South Africa</location> <location>Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and South Africa</location>
<coordinates> <coordinates>
<latitude>22 00 S</latitude> <latitude>22 00 S</latitude>
...@@ -47,7 +47,7 @@ ...@@ -47,7 +47,7 @@
<l_other>44%</l_other> <l_other>44%</l_other>
</land> </land>
</geography> </geography>
<society> <society id="c2soci">
<population>2630073</population> <population>2630073</population>
<nationality> <nationality>
<n_noun>Namibian(s)</n_noun> <n_noun>Namibian(s)</n_noun>
...@@ -176,7 +176,7 @@ ...@@ -176,7 +176,7 @@
<l_female>91.4%</l_female> <l_female>91.4%</l_female>
</literacy> </literacy>
</society> </society>
<government> <government id="c2gove">
<government_type>presidential republic</government_type> <government_type>presidential republic</government_type>
<capital>Windhoek</capital> <capital>Windhoek</capital>
<chief_of_state> <chief_of_state>
...@@ -198,7 +198,7 @@ ...@@ -198,7 +198,7 @@
<anthem>Namibia, Land of the Brave</anthem> <anthem>Namibia, Land of the Brave</anthem>
</symbols> </symbols>
</government> </government>
<economy> <economy id="c2econ">
<e_overview> <e_overview>
<par>Namibia’s economy is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for about 12.5% of GDP, but provides more than 50% of foreign exchange earnings. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Marine diamond mining is increasingly important as the terrestrial diamond supply has dwindled. The rising cost of mining diamonds, especially from the sea, combined with increased diamond production in Russia and China, has reduced profit margins. Namibian authorities have emphasized the need to add value to raw materials, do more in-country manufacturing, and exploit the services market, especially in the logistics and transportation sectors.</par> <par>Namibia’s economy is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for about 12.5% of GDP, but provides more than 50% of foreign exchange earnings. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Marine diamond mining is increasingly important as the terrestrial diamond supply has dwindled. The rising cost of mining diamonds, especially from the sea, combined with increased diamond production in Russia and China, has reduced profit margins. Namibian authorities have emphasized the need to add value to raw materials, do more in-country manufacturing, and exploit the services market, especially in the logistics and transportation sectors.</par>
<par>Namibia is one of the world’s largest producers of uranium. The Chinese-owned Husab uranium mine began producing uranium ore in 2017, and is expected to reach full production in August 2018 and produce 15 million pounds of uranium a year. Namibia also produces large quantities of zinc and is a smaller producer of gold and copper. Namibia's economy remains vulnerable to world commodity price fluctuations and drought.</par> <par>Namibia is one of the world’s largest producers of uranium. The Chinese-owned Husab uranium mine began producing uranium ore in 2017, and is expected to reach full production in August 2018 and produce 15 million pounds of uranium a year. Namibia also produces large quantities of zinc and is a smaller producer of gold and copper. Namibia's economy remains vulnerable to world commodity price fluctuations and drought.</par>
...@@ -299,7 +299,7 @@ ...@@ -299,7 +299,7 @@
</imports> </imports>
</exports_and_imports> </exports_and_imports>
</economy> </economy>
<energy> <energy id="c2ener">
<electricity> <electricity>
<e_access>51.8%</e_access> <e_access>51.8%</e_access>
<e_production>1.403 billion kWh</e_production> <e_production>1.403 billion kWh</e_production>
...@@ -343,7 +343,7 @@ ...@@ -343,7 +343,7 @@
<ng_imports>0 cu m</ng_imports> <ng_imports>0 cu m</ng_imports>
</natural_gas> </natural_gas>
</energy> </energy>
<communication> <communication id="c2comm">
<telephones> <telephones>
<t_fixed_lines_subscribtions>154816</t_fixed_lines_subscribtions> <t_fixed_lines_subscribtions>154816</t_fixed_lines_subscribtions>
<t_mobile_cellular_subscribtions>2759293</t_mobile_cellular_subscribtions> <t_mobile_cellular_subscribtions>2759293</t_mobile_cellular_subscribtions>
...@@ -354,7 +354,7 @@ ...@@ -354,7 +354,7 @@
<i_total_users>756,118</i_total_users> <i_total_users>756,118</i_total_users>
</internet> </internet>
</communication> </communication>
<military_and_security> <military_and_security id="c2mili">
<expenditure>3.35% of GDP</expenditure> <expenditure>3.35% of GDP</expenditure>
<military_forces> <military_forces>
<military_force> <military_force>
...@@ -373,7 +373,7 @@ ...@@ -373,7 +373,7 @@
</military_forces> </military_forces>
<obligation>no conscription</obligation> <obligation>no conscription</obligation>
</military_and_security> </military_and_security>
<transportation> <transportation id="c2transp">
<airports> <airports>
<ap_total>112</ap_total> <ap_total>112</ap_total>
<ap_paved>19</ap_paved> <ap_paved>19</ap_paved>
...@@ -391,7 +391,7 @@ ...@@ -391,7 +391,7 @@
</roadways> </roadways>
<waterways>0 km</waterways> <waterways>0 km</waterways>
</transportation> </transportation>
<transnational_issues> <transnational_issues id="c2transn">
<disputes>concerns from international experts and local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology in Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls along the Angola-Namibia border; the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River; Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river</disputes> <disputes>concerns from international experts and local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology in Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls along the Angola-Namibia border; the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River; Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river</disputes>
<trafficing> <trafficing>
<t_situation>Namibia is a country of origin and destination for children and, to a lesser extent, women subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; victims, lured by promises of legitimate jobs, are forced to work in urban centers and on commercial farms; traffickers exploit Namibian children, as well as children from Angola, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, for forced labor in agriculture, cattle herding, domestic service, fishing, and street vending; children are also forced into prostitution, often catering to tourists from southern Africa and Europe; San and Zemba children are particularly vulnerable; foreign adults and Namibian adults and children are reportedly subjected to forced labor in Chinese-owned retail, construction, and fishing operations</t_situation> <t_situation>Namibia is a country of origin and destination for children and, to a lesser extent, women subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; victims, lured by promises of legitimate jobs, are forced to work in urban centers and on commercial farms; traffickers exploit Namibian children, as well as children from Angola, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, for forced labor in agriculture, cattle herding, domestic service, fishing, and street vending; children are also forced into prostitution, often catering to tourists from southern Africa and Europe; San and Zemba children are particularly vulnerable; foreign adults and Namibian adults and children are reportedly subjected to forced labor in Chinese-owned retail, construction, and fishing operations</t_situation>
......
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<country cid="c1"> <country cid="c1">
<name>South Korea</name> <name id="c1name">South Korea</name>
<background> <background id="c1back">
<par>An independent kingdom for much of its long history, Korea was occupied by Japan beginning in 1905 following the Russo-Japanese War. In 1910, Tokyo formally annexed the entire Peninsula. Korea regained its independence following Japan's surrender to the US in 1945. After World War II, a democratic government (Republic of Korea, ROK) was set up in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula while a communist-style government was installed in the north (Democratic People's Republic of Korea, DPRK). During the Korean War (1950-53), US troops and UN forces fought alongside ROK soldiers to defend South Korea from a DPRK invasion supported by communist China and the Soviet Union. A 1953 armistice split the Peninsula along a demilitarized zone at about the 38th parallel. PARK Chung-hee took over leadership of the country in a 1961 coup. During his regime, from 1961 to 1979, South Korea achieved rapid economic growth, with per capita income rising to roughly 17 times the level of North Korea in 1979.</par> <par>An independent kingdom for much of its long history, Korea was occupied by Japan beginning in 1905 following the Russo-Japanese War. In 1910, Tokyo formally annexed the entire Peninsula. Korea regained its independence following Japan's surrender to the US in 1945. After World War II, a democratic government (Republic of Korea, ROK) was set up in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula while a communist-style government was installed in the north (Democratic People's Republic of Korea, DPRK). During the Korean War (1950-53), US troops and UN forces fought alongside ROK soldiers to defend South Korea from a DPRK invasion supported by communist China and the Soviet Union. A 1953 armistice split the Peninsula along a demilitarized zone at about the 38th parallel. PARK Chung-hee took over leadership of the country in a 1961 coup. During his regime, from 1961 to 1979, South Korea achieved rapid economic growth, with per capita income rising to roughly 17 times the level of North Korea in 1979.</par>
<par>South Korea held its first free presidential election under a revised democratic constitution in 1987, with former ROK Army general ROH Tae-woo winning a close race. In 1993, KIM Young-sam (1993-98) became the first civilian president of South Korea's new democratic era. President KIM Dae-jung (1998-2003) won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2000 for his contributions to South Korean democracy and his "Sunshine" policy of engagement with North Korea. President PARK Geun-hye, daughter of former ROK President PARK Chung-hee, took office in February 2013 as South Korea's first female leader. In December 2016, the National Assembly passed an impeachment motion against President PARK over her alleged involvement in a corruption and influence-peddling scandal, immediately suspending her presidential authorities. The impeachment was upheld in March 2017, triggering an early presidential election in May 2017 won by MOON Jae-in. South Korea hosted the Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games in February 2018, in which North Korea also participated. Discord with North Korea has permeated inter-Korean relations for much of the past decade, highlighted by the North's attacks on a South Korean ship and island in 2010, the exchange of artillery fire across the DMZ in 2015, and multiple nuclear and missile tests in 2016 and 2017. North Korea’s participation in the Winter Olympics, dispatch of a senior delegation to Seoul, and three inter-Korean summits in 2018 appear to have ushered in a temporary period of respite, buoyed by the historic US-DPRK summits in 2018 and 2019.</par> <par>South Korea held its first free presidential election under a revised democratic constitution in 1987, with former ROK Army general ROH Tae-woo winning a close race. In 1993, KIM Young-sam (1993-98) became the first civilian president of South Korea's new democratic era. President KIM Dae-jung (1998-2003) won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2000 for his contributions to South Korean democracy and his "Sunshine" policy of engagement with North Korea. President PARK Geun-hye, daughter of former ROK President PARK Chung-hee, took office in February 2013 as South Korea's first female leader. In December 2016, the National Assembly passed an impeachment motion against President PARK over her alleged involvement in a corruption and influence-peddling scandal, immediately suspending her presidential authorities. The impeachment was upheld in March 2017, triggering an early presidential election in May 2017 won by MOON Jae-in. South Korea hosted the Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games in February 2018, in which North Korea also participated. Discord with North Korea has permeated inter-Korean relations for much of the past decade, highlighted by the North's attacks on a South Korean ship and island in 2010, the exchange of artillery fire across the DMZ in 2015, and multiple nuclear and missile tests in 2016 and 2017. North Korea’s participation in the Winter Olympics, dispatch of a senior delegation to Seoul, and three inter-Korean summits in 2018 appear to have ushered in a temporary period of respite, buoyed by the historic US-DPRK summits in 2018 and 2019.</par>
</background> </background>
<geography> <geography id="c1geog">
<location>Eastern Asia, southern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea</location> <location>Eastern Asia, southern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea</location>
<coordinates> <coordinates>
<latitude>37 00 N</latitude> <latitude>37 00 N</latitude>
...@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@ ...@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@
<l_other>18%</l_other> <l_other>18%</l_other>
</land> </land>
</geography> </geography>
<society> <society id="c1soci">
<population>51835110</population> <population>51835110</population>
<nationality> <nationality>
<n_noun>Korean(s)</n_noun> <n_noun>Korean(s)</n_noun>
...@@ -145,7 +145,7 @@ ...@@ -145,7 +145,7 @@
</u_major_areas> </u_major_areas>
</urbanization> </urbanization>
</society> </society>
<government> <government id="c1gove">
<government_type>presidential republic</government_type> <government_type>presidential republic</government_type>
<capital>Seoul</capital> <capital>Seoul</capital>
<chief_of_state> <chief_of_state>
...@@ -168,7 +168,7 @@ ...@@ -168,7 +168,7 @@
<anthem>"Aegukga" (Patriotic Song)</anthem> <anthem>"Aegukga" (Patriotic Song)</anthem>
</symbols> </symbols>
</government> </government>
<economy> <economy id="c1econ">
<e_overview> <e_overview>
<par>After emerging from the 1950-53 war with North Korea, South Korea emerged as one of the 20th century’s most remarkable economic success stories, becoming a developed, globally connected, high-technology society within decades. In the 1960s, GDP per capita was comparable with levels in the poorest countries in the world. In 2004, South Korea's GDP surpassed one trillion dollars.</par> <par>After emerging from the 1950-53 war with North Korea, South Korea emerged as one of the 20th century’s most remarkable economic success stories, becoming a developed, globally connected, high-technology society within decades. In the 1960s, GDP per capita was comparable with levels in the poorest countries in the world. In 2004, South Korea's GDP surpassed one trillion dollars.</par>
<par>Beginning in the 1960s under President PARK Chung-hee, the government promoted the import of raw materials and technology, encouraged saving and investment over consumption, kept wages low, and directed resources to export-oriented industries that remain important to the economy to this day. Growth surged under these policies, and frequently reached double-digits in the 1960s and 1970s. Growth gradually moderated in the 1990s as the economy matured, but remained strong enough to propel South Korea into the ranks of the advanced economies of the OECD by 1997. These policies also led to the emergence of family-owned chaebol conglomerates such as Daewoo, Hyundai, and Samsung, which retained their dominant positions even as the government loosened its grip on the economy amid the political changes of the 1980s and 1990s.</par> <par>Beginning in the 1960s under President PARK Chung-hee, the government promoted the import of raw materials and technology, encouraged saving and investment over consumption, kept wages low, and directed resources to export-oriented industries that remain important to the economy to this day. Growth surged under these policies, and frequently reached double-digits in the 1960s and 1970s. Growth gradually moderated in the 1990s as the economy matured, but remained strong enough to propel South Korea into the ranks of the advanced economies of the OECD by 1997. These policies also led to the emergence of family-owned chaebol conglomerates such as Daewoo, Hyundai, and Samsung, which retained their dominant positions even as the government loosened its grip on the economy amid the political changes of the 1980s and 1990s.</par>
...@@ -295,7 +295,7 @@ ...@@ -295,7 +295,7 @@
</imports> </imports>
</exports_and_imports> </exports_and_imports>
</economy> </economy>
<energy> <energy id="c1ener">
<electricity> <electricity>
<e_access>100%</e_access> <e_access>100%</e_access>
<e_production>526 billion kWh</e_production> <e_production>526 billion kWh</e_production>
...@@ -339,7 +339,7 @@ ...@@ -339,7 +339,7 @@
<ng_imports>48.65 billion cu m</ng_imports> <ng_imports>48.65 billion cu m</ng_imports>
</natural_gas> </natural_gas>
</energy> </energy>
<communication> <communication id="c1comm">
<telephones> <telephones>
<t_fixed_lines_subscribtions>25906849</t_fixed_lines_subscribtions> <t_fixed_lines_subscribtions>25906849</t_fixed_lines_subscribtions>
<t_mobile_cellular_subscribtions>66355778</t_mobile_cellular_subscribtions> <t_mobile_cellular_subscribtions>66355778</t_mobile_cellular_subscribtions>
...@@ -350,7 +350,7 @@ ...@@ -350,7 +350,7 @@
<i_total_users>44.153 million</i_total_users> <i_total_users>44.153 million</i_total_users>
</internet> </internet>
</communication> </communication>
<military_and_security> <military_and_security id="c1mili">
<expenditure>2.62% of GDP</expenditure> <expenditure>2.62% of GDP</expenditure>
<military_forces> <military_forces>
<military_force> <military_force>
...@@ -368,7 +368,7 @@ ...@@ -368,7 +368,7 @@
</military_forces> </military_forces>
<obligation>minimum conscript service obligation varies by service- 21 months (Army, Marines), 23 months (Navy), 24 months (Air Force)</obligation> <obligation>minimum conscript service obligation varies by service- 21 months (Army, Marines), 23 months (Navy), 24 months (Air Force)</obligation>
</military_and_security> </military_and_security>
<transportation> <transportation id="c1transp">
<airports> <airports>
<ap_total>111</ap_total> <ap_total>111</ap_total>
<ap_paved>71</ap_paved> <ap_paved>71</ap_paved>
...@@ -386,7 +386,7 @@ ...@@ -386,7 +386,7 @@
</roadways> </roadways>
<waterways>1,600 km</waterways> <waterways>1,600 km</waterways>
</transportation> </transportation>
<transnational_issues> <transnational_issues id="c1transn">
<disputes>Military Demarcation Line within the 4-km-wide Demilitarized Zone has separated North from South Korea since 1953; periodic incidents with North Korea in the Yellow Sea over the Northern Limit Line, which South Korea claims as a maritime boundary; South Korea and Japan claim Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima), occupied by South Korea since 1954</disputes> <disputes>Military Demarcation Line within the 4-km-wide Demilitarized Zone has separated North from South Korea since 1953; periodic incidents with North Korea in the Yellow Sea over the Northern Limit Line, which South Korea claims as a maritime boundary; South Korea and Japan claim Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima), occupied by South Korea since 1954</disputes>
</transnational_issues> </transnational_issues>
</country> </country>
\ No newline at end of file
...@@ -18,6 +18,11 @@ ...@@ -18,6 +18,11 @@
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<fo:page-sequence master-reference="mytemplate"> <fo:page-sequence master-reference="mytemplate">
<fo:static-content flow-name="xsl-region-after">
<fo:block text-align="center">
<fo:page-number/>
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<fo:flow flow-name="xsl-region-body"> <fo:flow flow-name="xsl-region-body">
<fo:block page-break-before="always" font-size="18pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px"> <fo:block page-break-before="always" font-size="18pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px">
Countries Countries
...@@ -39,6 +44,32 @@ ...@@ -39,6 +44,32 @@
</fo:block> </fo:block>
</fo:list-item-body> </fo:list-item-body>
</fo:list-item> </fo:list-item>
<fo:list-item>
<fo:list-item-label end-indent="label-end()">
<fo:block> </fo:block>
</fo:list-item-label>
<fo:list-item-body start-indent="body-start()">
<fo:list-block>
<xsl:for-each select="*[position()>1]">
<fo:list-item>
<fo:list-item-label end-indent="label-end()">
<fo:block>-</fo:block>
</fo:list-item-label>
<fo:list-item-body start-indent="body-start()">
<fo:block>
<fo:basic-link text-decoration="underline">
<xsl:attribute name="internal-destination">
<xsl:value-of select="@id"/>
</xsl:attribute>
<xsl:value-of select="name(.)"/>
</fo:basic-link>
</fo:block>
</fo:list-item-body>
</fo:list-item>
</xsl:for-each>
</fo:list-block>
</fo:list-item-body>
</fo:list-item>
</xsl:for-each> </xsl:for-each>
</fo:list-block> </fo:list-block>
<xsl:for-each select="country"> <xsl:for-each select="country">
...@@ -49,6 +80,9 @@ ...@@ -49,6 +80,9 @@
<xsl:value-of select="name" /> <xsl:value-of select="name" />
</fo:block> </fo:block>
<fo:block font-size="14pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px" space-after="7px"> <fo:block font-size="14pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px" space-after="7px">
<xsl:attribute name="id">
<xsl:value-of select="background/@id"/>
</xsl:attribute>
Background Background
</fo:block> </fo:block>
<xsl:for-each select="background/par"> <xsl:for-each select="background/par">
...@@ -57,6 +91,9 @@ ...@@ -57,6 +91,9 @@
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</xsl:for-each> </xsl:for-each>
<fo:block font-size="14pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px"> <fo:block font-size="14pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px">
<xsl:attribute name="id">
<xsl:value-of select="geography/@id"/>
</xsl:attribute>
Geography Geography
</fo:block> </fo:block>
<fo:block font-size="12pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px"> <fo:block font-size="12pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px">
...@@ -171,6 +208,9 @@ ...@@ -171,6 +208,9 @@
</fo:list-item> </fo:list-item>
</fo:list-block> </fo:list-block>
<fo:block font-size="14pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px"> <fo:block font-size="14pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px">
<xsl:attribute name="id">
<xsl:value-of select="society/@id"/>
</xsl:attribute>
Society Society
</fo:block> </fo:block>
<fo:block font-size="12pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px"> <fo:block font-size="12pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px">
...@@ -404,6 +444,9 @@ ...@@ -404,6 +444,9 @@
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<fo:block font-size="14pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px"> <fo:block font-size="14pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px">
<xsl:attribute name="id">
<xsl:value-of select="government/@id"/>
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Government Government
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<fo:block font-size="12pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px"> <fo:block font-size="12pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px">
...@@ -470,6 +513,9 @@ ...@@ -470,6 +513,9 @@
<xsl:value-of select="government/symbols/anthem" /> <xsl:value-of select="government/symbols/anthem" />
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<fo:block font-size="14pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px"> <fo:block font-size="14pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px">
<xsl:attribute name="id">
<xsl:value-of select="economy/@id"/>
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Economy Economy
</fo:block> </fo:block>
<fo:block font-size="12pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px" space-after="7px"> <fo:block font-size="12pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px" space-after="7px">
...@@ -621,6 +667,9 @@ ...@@ -621,6 +667,9 @@
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<fo:block font-size="14pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px"> <fo:block font-size="14pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px">
<xsl:attribute name="id">
<xsl:value-of select="energy/@id"/>
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Energy Energy
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<fo:block font-size="12pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px"> <fo:block font-size="12pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px">
...@@ -762,6 +811,9 @@ ...@@ -762,6 +811,9 @@
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<fo:block font-size="14pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px"> <fo:block font-size="14pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px">
<xsl:attribute name="id">
<xsl:value-of select="communication/@id"/>
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Communication Communication
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<fo:block font-size="12pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px"> <fo:block font-size="12pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px">
...@@ -804,6 +856,9 @@ ...@@ -804,6 +856,9 @@
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<fo:block font-size="14pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px"> <fo:block font-size="14pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px">
<xsl:attribute name="id">
<xsl:value-of select="military_and_security/@id"/>
</xsl:attribute>
Military and security Military and security
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<fo:block font-size="12pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px"> <fo:block font-size="12pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px">
...@@ -835,6 +890,9 @@ ...@@ -835,6 +890,9 @@
<xsl:value-of select="military_and_security/obligation" /> <xsl:value-of select="military_and_security/obligation" />
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<fo:block font-size="14pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px"> <fo:block font-size="14pt" text-align="left" font-weight="bold" space-before="10px">
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Transportation Transportation
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...@@ -932,6 +990,9 @@ ...@@ -932,6 +990,9 @@
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Transnational issues Transnational issues
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......
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...@@ -4,15 +4,32 @@ ...@@ -4,15 +4,32 @@
<title>Cuba</title> <title>Cuba</title>
</head> </head>
<body> <body>
<div style="margin: 0 10%"> <div style="margin: 0 10%;">
<h1>Cuba</h1> <h1>Cuba</h1>
</div> </div>
<div style="margin: 0 10%; float: left">
<ul>
<li><a href="#c4back">Background</a></li>
<li><a href="#c4geog">Geography</a></li>
<li><a href="#c4soci">Society</a></li>
<li><a href="#c4gove">Government</a></li>
<li><a href="#c4econ">Economy</a></li>
<li><a href="#c4ener">Energy</a></li>
<li><a href="#c4comm">Communication</a></li>
<li><a href="#c4mili">Military and security</a></li>
<li><a href="#c4transp">Transportation</a></li>
<li><a href="#c4transn">Transnational issues</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<div style="width: 25%; float: right"><img src="images/CU-flag.gif" alt="Flag image" width="375" height="187"></div>
<div style="width: 25%; float: right"><img src="images/CU-locator-map.gif" alt="Map image" width="460" height="265"></div>
<div style="clear: both"></div>
<div style="margin: 50px 10%"> <div style="margin: 50px 10%">
<h3>Background</h3> <h3 id="c4back">Background</h3>
<p>The native Amerindian population of Cuba began to decline after the European discovery of the island by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 and following its development as a Spanish colony during the next several centuries. Large numbers of African slaves were imported to work the coffee and sugar plantations, and Havana became the launching point for the annual treasure fleets bound for Spain from Mexico and Peru. Spanish rule eventually provoked an independence movement and occasional rebellions were harshly suppressed. US intervention during the Spanish-American War in 1898 assisted the Cubans in overthrowing Spanish rule. The Treaty of Paris established Cuban independence from Spain in 1898 and, following three-and-a-half years of subsequent US military rule, Cuba became an independent republic in 1902 after which the island experienced a string of governments mostly dominated by the military and corrupt politicians. Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his authoritarian rule held the subsequent regime together for nearly five decades. He stepped down as president in February 2008 in favor of his younger brother Raul CASTRO. Cuba's communist revolution, with Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin America and Africa during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez, hand-picked by Raul CASTRO to succeed him, was approved as president by the National Assembly and took office on 19 April 2018.</p> <p>The native Amerindian population of Cuba began to decline after the European discovery of the island by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 and following its development as a Spanish colony during the next several centuries. Large numbers of African slaves were imported to work the coffee and sugar plantations, and Havana became the launching point for the annual treasure fleets bound for Spain from Mexico and Peru. Spanish rule eventually provoked an independence movement and occasional rebellions were harshly suppressed. US intervention during the Spanish-American War in 1898 assisted the Cubans in overthrowing Spanish rule. The Treaty of Paris established Cuban independence from Spain in 1898 and, following three-and-a-half years of subsequent US military rule, Cuba became an independent republic in 1902 after which the island experienced a string of governments mostly dominated by the military and corrupt politicians. Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his authoritarian rule held the subsequent regime together for nearly five decades. He stepped down as president in February 2008 in favor of his younger brother Raul CASTRO. Cuba's communist revolution, with Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin America and Africa during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez, hand-picked by Raul CASTRO to succeed him, was approved as president by the National Assembly and took office on 19 April 2018.</p>
<p>The